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Prepare Your Building for Extreme Warm Weather (and Keep Its Occupants Cool!)

In summer, the Chicagoland area is often forecasted to experience extremely hot temperatures with high humidity that will test the limits of the air-conditioning capabilities of building cooling equipment.

In advance of this and other extreme weather events, it is important to make sure buildings are prepared to provide comfortable conditions for their occupants. We recommend taking the following steps to ready your building, as applicable:

  • Override unoccupied and overnight setbacks to occupied
  • Avoid scheduled shutdowns of systems
  • Avoid turning cooling related equipment off
  • Maintain continuous operation of all cooling related pumps
  • Minimize infiltration by keeping doors, windows and other openings sealed and shut
  • Keep blinds and shades closed on windows during the day to avoid direct sunlight
  • Perform a system check of all air-conditioning critical equipment
  • Verify the operation of all backup or redundant air-conditioning equipment not normally operated
  • Ensure make-up water feeds to cooling towers are fully functional and water levels are able to be maintained
  • Ensure condensate drains and traps have been checked and are functional
  • Proactively change filters in fan coils and air-handling equipment
  • Enhance dehumidification by lowering cooling coil discharge air temperatures and slowing down fan speed, where necessary. Ensure equipment is operating within manufacturer guidelines. Adjustments to DX equipment should be made by a service contractor authorized by the manufacturer
  • Set all thermostats to typical design indoor conditions of 74°F-75°F
  • Sub-cool event spaces and venues prior to scheduled events
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Elara Establishes Commercial/Multi-Family Practice Leader Role

I am pleased to announce that Elara Engineering has established the role of Practice Leader to further advance our client focus and our ongoing pursuit of excellence. As we roll out these new, high-level positions for already established leaders within our firm, I am excited that I have been designated the Practice Leader for Elara’s Commercial/Multi-Family market.

With technical expertise and deep project experience within the Commercial/Multi-Family market, I look forward to directly assisting you and all of our Commercial/Multi-Family clients as you strive to meet the needs of your current and future built environment with innovative, practical, and sustainable MEPFP solutions that advance your institution’s mission, goals, and objectives.

Benefits Provided by an Elara Practice Leader

Although the term Practice Leader likely has different meanings to different people, for Elara Engineering it encompasses the following key elements and benefits.

  • Thought Leadership / Active Industry Participant.
  • Industry expert that is well versed in various aspects of a specific market
  • Drives innovation and practical approaches for sustainable solutions that are particularly applicable to clients and stakeholders within a particular market sector.
  • Creates valuable connections among clients, vendors, and other stakeholders.
  • Client Partner / Trusted Advisor.
  • Provide effective, specific, unbiased, highly valuable insights, ideas, advice, suggestions, and input based on a client’s mission.
  • High-Level Organizational Contact / Client Advocate.
  • A high-level key contact within our firm that is an additional communication route to address project or enterprise-level issues, concerns, or suggestions and elicit change, if needed.

As the Practice Leader for your market, I look forward to periodically providing insights via email and social media, meeting you at industry events, and reaching out to you directly to continue to listen and learn and to provide unbiased and beneficial information, ideas, and perspective that will help you achieve your unique goals and objectives to advance your mission.

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Elara Establishes Laboratory/Healthcare Practice Leader Role

I am pleased to announce that Elara Engineering has established the role of Practice Leader to further advance our client focus and our ongoing pursuit of excellence. As we roll out these new, high-level positions for already established leaders within our firm, I am excited that I have been designated the Practice Leader for Elara’s Laboratory/Healthcare market.

With technical expertise and deep project experience within the Laboratory/Healthcare market, I look forward to directly assisting you and all of our Laboratory/Healthcare clients as you strive to meet the needs of your current and future built environment with innovative, practical, and sustainable MEPFP solutions that advance your institution’s mission, goals, and objectives.

Benefits Provided by an Elara Practice Leader

Although the term Practice Leader likely has different meanings to different people, for Elara Engineering it encompasses the following key elements and benefits.

  • Thought Leadership / Active Industry Participant.
    • Industry expert that is well versed in various aspects of a specific market.
    • Drives innovation and practical approaches for sustainable solutions that are particularly applicable to clients and stakeholders within a particular market sector.
    • Creates valuable connections among clients, vendors, and other stakeholders.
  • Client Partner / Trusted Advisor.
    • Provide effective, specific, unbiased, highly valuable insights, ideas, advice, suggestions, and input based on a client’s mission.
  • High-Level Organizational Contact / Client Advocate.
    • A high-level key contact within our firm that is an additional communication route to address project or enterprise-level issues, concerns, or suggestions and elicit change, if needed.

As the Practice Leader for your market, I look forward to periodically providing insights via email and social media, meeting you at industry events, and reaching out to you directly to continue to listen and learn and to provide unbiased and beneficial information, ideas, and perspective that will help you achieve your unique goals and objectives to advance your mission.

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Elara Establishes Higher Education Practice Leader Role

I am pleased to announce that Elara Engineering has established the role of Practice Leader to further advance our client focus and our ongoing pursuit of excellence. As we roll out these new, high-level positions for already established leaders within our firm, I am excited to announce that I have been designated the Practice Leader for Elara’s Higher Education market.

With technical expertise and deep project experience within the Higher Education market, I look forward to directly assisting you and all of our Higher Education clients as you strive to meet the administrative, faculty, student, and visitor needs of your current and future built environment with innovative, practical, and sustainable MEPFP solutions that advance your institution’s mission, goals, and objectives.

Benefits Provided by an Elara Practice Leader

Although the term Practice Leader likely has different meanings to different people, for Elara Engineering it encompasses the following key elements and benefits.

  • Thought Leadership / Active Industry Participant.
    • Industry expert that is well versed in various aspects of a specific market
    • Drives innovation and practical approaches for sustainable solutions that are particularly applicable to clients and stakeholders within a particular market sector.
    • Creates valuable connections among clients, vendors, and other stakeholders.
  • Client Partner / Trusted Advisor.
    • Provide effective, specific, unbiased, highly valuable insights, ideas, advice, suggestions, and input based on a client’s mission.
  • High-Level Organizational Contact / Client Advocate.
    • A high-level key contact within our firm that is an additional communication route to address project or enterprise-level issues, concerns, or suggestions and elicit change, if needed.

As the Practice Leader for your market, I look forward to periodically providing insights via email and social media, meeting you at industry events, and reaching out to you directly. My goal is to continue to listen, learn, and to provide information, ideas, and perspectives that will help you achieve your goals and advance your mission.

 

 

Dustin Langille Resume

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Energy Benchmarking Due in June

Elara Engineering would like to remind our clients that Energy Benchmarking for the City of Chicago and the City of Evanston are due this June. For more information about the ordinance and required compliance actions please see below and click here.  Additionally, Maricruz Zepeda would be happy to answer any of your questions and assist in verification of your building’s data. She can be reached at 708.236.0300 x162 or mzepeda@elaraeng.com.

City of Chicago Energy Benchmarking Verification Due June 1st
The City of Chicago requires owners of commercial, residential, and municipal buildings over 50,000 SF to track and verify (every third year by a professional) their building’s energy consumption using the Energy Star Portfolio Manager Tool. The deadline to update and verify your building’s data is June 1, 2022.
City of Evanston Energy Benchmarking Verification Due June 30th
The City of Evanston requires owners of commercial, residential, and municipal buildings over 20,000 SF to track and verify (every third year by a professional) their building’s energy and water consumption using the Energy Star Portfolio Manager Tool. This includes apartment buildings, strip malls, schools, churches, hospitals, and condominium buildings. In addition, city-owned buildings, 10,000 SF or greater in size are required to comply. It should be noted that condominium buildings 20,000 SF to 50,000 SF are exempt from the ordinance. The deadline to update and verify your building’s data is June 30, 2022.
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A New Year- An Opportunity to Update or Obtain a Reserve Study

What is a Reserve Study?                                         

A Reserve Study is a formal review of a building’s major common elements, including Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing, and Fire Protection (MEPFP) systems, at the time the study is performed.  Typically, a Reserve Study is performed by one or more professionals and consists of site visits and the preparation of a written report. The report includes a master spreadsheet allocating budget costs for system and component repairs and replacements that are anticipated within a 20-year planning horizon.

 

The Benefits of a Reserve Study

  • Supports a condominium association’s requirement to maintain an appropriate level of capital within their financial reserves.
  • Provides a decision-making framework to prioritize and plan for major repairs and capital projects.
  • Documents the potential need for common fees, assessments, and loans if necessary.
  • Protects condominium unit owners from unexpected large assessments or debt service on loans for capital improvement projects.

A Reserve Study is not only important for current condominium owners, but for future buyers, lenders who may be called upon for loans, and insurers looking to establish long term relationships with well-run and adequately funded community associations.

 

Reserve Study Elements

 

 

 

 

Data Acquisition

  • A review of (1) existing building drawings; (2) the previous Reserve Study and/or allocation spreadsheet (if a previous study was completed); and (3) available system documentation.
  • Staff interviews.

Field Reviews

  • An on-site review of the building’s common element systems to generate/confirm an inventory of major components and equipment with nameplate data (e.g., manufacturer, basic specifications, etc.) that can be used to request additional information, as needed; and to visually ascertain and assess the physical condition of each piece of identified equipment or major component.

Data Analysis & Recommendation

  • Upon evaluation of available information and taking into consideration age, condition, and remaining useful service life; recommendations are developed for the timing of repair or replacement for capital projects of $5,000 or greater that should be budgeted to maintain the property for 20 years.

Report

  • A provided written report will include an executive summary, project methodology, a physical analysis section, a financial analysis section (with master spreadsheet), and recommendations.

 

Added Valued from Elara Engineering

Enhanced MEPFP Solutions

In addition to the above-described elements relative to MEPFP systems, Elara’s experienced engineering team also includes – as part of its Reserve Studies — the preliminary identification of MEPFP system alternatives that offer ancillary building benefits such as increased energy efficiency, enhanced occupant comfort, beneficial technology upgrades, and significant utility cost savings, as applicable.

It should be noted that alternative systems evaluated as part of any reserve study and their associated costs are intended to be used as a budgeting tool for future planning. Independent studies (often termed “Schematic Design”) are frequently recommended when it is time to undertake the capital project in order to further detail and update cost estimates and determine the project basis of design.

 

Real-World Cost Estimates = Better Planning

As described above, cost estimates for a Reserve Study are derived from recent equipment cost information provided by vendors. However, to provide a more complete picture of the total potential costs involved, Elara’s cost estimates are further extrapolated to include consideration for current market trends based on similar, recent experience. Elara’s proprietary cost estimating tool is based on real-time data of various construction-related activities from our design and construction experience in lieu of theoretical construction estimating methods. In this manner, building stakeholders gain a much more complete view of the true costs that may be incurred over a 20-year planning period.

Experienced Engineers

Elara’s reserve studies are performed by professional engineers to ensure that building stakeholders receive the full depth and breadth of Elara’s experience identifying and designing MEPFP upgrades in similar buildings.

 

For additional information about Reserve Studies or to inquire about Elara’s Reserve Study services specifically, please contact Kelsey Dale at kdale@elaraeng.com.

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Prepare your Building for Extreme Cold Weather

As many of you are aware the Chicagoland area is forecasted to experience severe cold temperatures over the next few days with lows occurring at or below zero with the projected overnight low on Tuesday being -8degF. The forecast projects temperatures that will test the limits of the heating capabilities of your equipment. In advance of this and other extreme cold weather events, it is important to make sure your building is prepared.
We recommend taking the following steps to ready your building for the extreme cold, especially if you have made changes to how your ventilation system is operating since last winter, or you have new equipment:
  • Turn off all non-critical exhaust systems (i.e. residential kitchen and toilet exhaust)
  • Temporarily reduce ventilation where possible
    • DO NOT turn off 100% Makeup Air Units (MAUs)
    • If 100% MAUs shut down unexpectedly and cannot be restored, we advise shut down of the toilet, kitchen and similar exhaust systems
  • Override unoccupied and overnight setbacks to occupied
  • Avoid scheduled shutdowns of systems
  • Avoid turning heating related equipment off
  • Verify all coil pumps are operational
    • DO NOT shut coil pumps off
  • Maintain continuous operation of all heating related pumps
  • Minimize infiltration
    • Keep doors, windows and other openings sealed
    • Add temporary heat where infiltration can’t be controlled
  • Keep blinds and shades closed on windows at night and those not receiving direct sunlight during the day
  • Perform a system check of all heating critical equipment
  • Verify the operation of all low-limit safeties such as freezestats to protect equipment
    • Ensure the sequence of operation is followed upon a freezestat trip (Example: outside air dampers properly shut and can be reopened)
  • Verify the operation of all backup or redundant heating equipment not normally used
  • Verify the location of isolation valves, verify their operation and understand when to use them
    • During an emergency situation where a pipe, coil or other system has frozen, the reliability, and proper use of isolation valves is critical
    • Isolate the leak to as local an area as possible.
    • Take care not to close the wrong valve (essentially stopping the flow of water)
      • Water at rest is much more likely to freeze. Therefore, do not risk further freezing of the system by closing the wrong valve, should isolation be required
For more information or to address specific concerns or questions, please contact us at info@elaraeng.com.
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NFPA Driven Sprinkler System Antifreeze Replacement Required by September 30, 2022

The Problem

Fire protection systems typically use an antifreeze that is manufactured with propylene glycol or glycerin, both of which are flammable. In some cases, previously permissible concentrations of antifreeze in fire protection systems have been proven to have exacerbated fires and even resulted in explosions when antifreeze solution has come into contact with the flames that initially triggered the system.

To address the above concern, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) established requirements in 2014 regarding the chemical makeup of acceptable antifreeze solutions, the allowable concentration of antifreeze in systems, and the size of systems that uses antifreeze. Included in the 2014 changes to NFPA 13 and NFPA 25 were maintenance requirements for existing antifreeze sprinkler systems. These maintenance requirements include:

  • Annual testing of the system
  • Installation of an additional control or test valve, if needed
  • Installation of signage explaining the locations of antifreeze in the facility, the antifreeze supplier, and the concentration and volume of antifreeze in the system.

What’s Now Required

All existing antifreeze sprinkler systems must be brought up to current NFPA requirements no later than September 30, 2022. If a building utilizes an existing antifreeze sprinkler system that was installed before 2012, NFPA 13 and NFPA 25 require that the system either be modified to utilize an acceptable antifreeze solution (described below) or converted to a fire protection system that does not require antifreeze.

The Solution: Modification Process and Antifreeze Replacement Options

To replace an existing antifreeze solution, the following process should be followed:

  • Flush the System. The fire suppression system must be flushed to eliminate any traces of the antifreeze solution.
  • Replace the Antifreeze. Once the sprinkler system has been properly flushed, the antifreeze solution must be replaced with a UL listed, noncombustible, solution.

Currently, only two antifreeze replacement solutions are available on the market that meet NFPA requirements for new fire protection systems or retrofit of existing fire protection systems:

  • Viking FreezemasterTM
  • Tyco LFP Antifreeze+TM

Both of the above products have passed stringent corrosion tests and are identified as safe for use in cold-weather antifreeze sprinkler systems. Retrofit of an existing sprinkler system with the above identified products requires modifications to the existing sprinkler systems to ensure proper functionality.

How We Can Help

For buildings containing antifreeze sprinkler systems, Elara’s Fire Protection Design Team is ready to assist building owners and managers in navigating the decision-making process and implementing system modifications. Specifically, Elara’s experts can:

  • Confirm where antifreeze systems are permitted.
  • Evaluate existing antifreeze systems to identify options for modification to meet NFPA requirements.
  • Specify a retrofit for existing fire protection systems to use a listed antifreeze product.
  • Design a new compressed air or nitrogen dry system that will not require antifreeze to protect areas subject to freezing temperatures.

For more information about the required sprinkler system modifications and the upcoming September 30, 2022 deadline, please contact us at info@elaraeng.com.

 

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Long Lead Times for MEP Equipment Require Project Planning Up to One Year in Advance

The New Normal – A Longer Planning Timeline

Simply put, if a building representative believes they need a new chiller, boiler, or other mechanical, electrical, or plumbing (MEP) equipment by the Summer of 2023, they likely should be planning to have their project in design during the Summer of 2022.

Elara Engineering’s design teams are tracking MEP equipment delivery lead times as long as 16-20 weeks, with certain situations extending beyond this duration.  This includes major equipment such as air handling units, chillers, and boilers as well as major components (larger sized valves, pipe fittings, etc.) which are impacting both retrofit and repair projects.  Due to the long equipment lead times, clients may not realize that advanced planning is necessary to ensure their project is completed on time.

 

What is Elara doing to assist Clients during the preliminary phases of the Project Development?

  • As soon our MEP design teams become aware of a client’s interest in undertaking a project – before we’re even retained or formally asked for a proposal; we make inquiries with major equipment manufacturers regarding general lead times and integrate this information into the projects and timelines we propose.
  • We then advise our potential client about when approval to proceed is needed – particularly if the project is driven by a seasonal need (e.g., winter heating, summer cooling, etc.).
  • As part of our engineering proposals, we also identify and incorporate tactics to preorder long lead equipment, if required, to ensure that the project schedule can be achieved.  Proposals may even include a preliminary schedule so that stakeholders know what to expect and when key decisions should be made.

 

What is Elara doing to assist Clients during the Engineering Design Phase?

  • As we evaluate multiple equipment manufacturers on key attributes like energy efficiency, physical size, etc., we also consider equipment delivery lead times as part of the overall selection process.
  • We identify and evaluate phasing opportunities to minimize the risk that the building is without the service of the equipment being replaced. For example, if multiple boilers/chillers are planned for replacement, we evaluate a sequenced construction approach so that only one unit is replaced at a time to ensure that existing equipment can continue to support the building until all new boilers/chillers are operational.  We also evaluate if the new equipment can be installed at a different location (e.g., adjacent to existing equipment) so that downtime is further reduced.

 

Additional Thoughts

  • Even with the efforts described above to address current market conditions, delivery times can be further delayed. Therefore, it is important to plan ahead as much as possible and to be conservative when establishing project schedules as actual equipment delivery dates are ultimately beyond full control of the client, contractor, and design engineer.
  • When purchased equipment is a major component of a new or retrofitted MEP system – like an air-handling unit , boiler, chiller, or switchboard – and if delivery of that equipment is delayed, the building’s owner, manager, and occupants can be negatively impacted due to a lack of service when needed and when required to meet local ordinances. As a result, we recommend that clients contact us as soon as they are considering an MEP project so that, together, we can begin evaluating equipment lead times and planning the project schedule.

 

For more information about equipment lead times and planning for your future project, we urge you to contact us at info@elaraeng.com.

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Elara’s Cem Diniz to Speak at Webinar/Panel Discussion: Working Smarter – Improving Building Performance

With fuel costs and environmental concerns both on the rise, condominium boards and managers are looking for ways to cut energy costs and reduce their carbon footprint. Elara Engineering invites you to join a webinar/panel discussion for ways to assess and improve your community’s energy efficiency and its bottom line. Topics to include:

  • Assessing overall energy use
  • Lowering costs by reducing emissions and waste
  • How to qualify for attractive incentive programs at the local, state, and federal level
  • The market value of upgrading your building’s energy profile.

Registration for the 45-minute webinar/panel discussion to be held this Thursday, May 27th from 2:45p to 3:30pm CST can be found at: https://www.chicago.yrexpos.com/webinarworkingsmarter.

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City of Chicago and City of Evanston Energy Benchmarking Verification Due In June

Elara Engineering would like to remind our clients that Energy Benchmarking for the City of Chicago and the City of Evanston are due this June. For more information about the ordinance and required compliance actions please see below and click here. Additionally, Kelsey Dale would be happy to answer any of your questions and assist in verification of your building’s data. She can be reached at 708.236.0300 x147 or kdale@elaraeng.com.

 

City of Chicago Benchmarking Verification Due June 1st

The City of Chicago requires owners of commercial, residential, and municipal buildings over 50,000 SF to track and verify (every third year by a professional) their building’s energy consumption using the Energy Star Portfolio Manager Tool. The deadline to update and verify your building’s data is June 1, 2021.

 

City of Evanston Benchmarking Verification Due June 30th

The City of Evanston requires owners of commercial, residential, and municipal buildings over 20,000 SF to track and verify (every third year by a professional) their building’s energy and water consumption using the Energy Star Portfolio Manager Tool. This includes apartment buildings, strip malls, schools, churches, hospitals, and condominium buildings. In addition, city-owned buildings, 10,000 SF or greater in size are required to comply. It should be noted that condominium buildings 20,000 SF to 50,000 SF are exempt from the ordinance. The deadline to update and verify your building’s data is June 30, 2021.

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Elara Designs Infrastructure to support Electric Vehicle Charging Stations in Existing Buildings

As the number of electric cars increases, owners and managers of existing residential and commercial buildings continue to rely on Elara Engineering to provide electrical designs to support the addition of electric vehicle (EV) charging stations to accommodate the needs of their occupants and visitors.

Unlike new construction where EV charging stations can be incorporated into a building’s original design, adding charging stations to an existing building presents unique considerations and challenges.  Because of this, Elara recommends an initial planning phase to assist stakeholders in identifying a cost-effective, practical, and potentially phased approach to add EV charging stations to their existing buildings.

Electricity Cost Allocation
An early determination for any EV charging station project is the identification of who will pay for the provided electricity.  For condominiums, charging stations would likely be installed by individual owners with the building providing the needed infrastructure and each owner paying for their electricity through either individual metering or predetermined dues/reimbursements.

Determining if Sufficient Power is Available
There are typically two main sources of power for new EV charging stations in multi-family or multi-tenant commercial buildings. The first source  is from a common area electrical service that provides power for common area lighting, plug loads, and HVAC. This service usually has a single meter and existing utility bills will indicate current peak power usage over the course of the year. From this we can determine how much additional power is available for future charging stations.

If there is minimal or insufficient common area power available for the desired number of charging stations, we then look at the  second source of power, residential/tenant electrical service(s).  Residential/Tenant electrical service typically employs numerous individual meters which are paid for by the individual unit owners/tenants. Because of this, determining available capacity requires a 30 day load study which entails connecting a temporary meter or meters to the residential/tenant service(s). Working with an electrical contractor Elara can help identify the number and appropriate locations for these temporary meters and will evaluate the data to determine how much power is available. This phased and transparent approach provides the most value for buildings and minimizes costs.

Garage Ownership
Buildings may own their garage or have another owner managing the garage’s functions.  Some may even be partially public garages.  Ownership and the allocation of the cost to design, install, and manage new EV charging stations needs to be determined prior to the project moving forward.

Adding Charging Stations Singly versus A Phased Approach
Adding EV charging stations one at a time may eventually exceed the capacity of the building’s electrical infrastructure; thereby eliminating available power for those that later desire charging stations.  It is recommended that a phased approach be developed to capitalize on cost efficiencies and to allow building owners the opportunity to budget and move at a planned pace.

Equipment Selection
There are many types of EV charging stations offered at various voltages and charging rates that have different direct impacts on a building’s infrastructure.  Therefore, Elara typically develops equipment specifications acceptable to owners that can be used on an ongoing, planned basis.

With numerous studies, designs, and installations completed within the City of Chicago, Elara’s dedicated team has the proven experience to help building owners/managers navigate the path to add electrical vehicle charging stations.  For more information or assistance, please contact info@elaraeng.com.

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Prepare your Building for Extreme Cold Weather

As many of you are aware the Chicagoland area is forecasted to experience severe cold temperatures over the next 7 days with lows occurring at or below zero.  The forecast projects temperatures that may test the limits of the heating capabilities of your equipment. In advance of this and other extreme cold weather events, it is important to make sure your building is prepared.

We recommend taking the following steps to ready your building for the extreme cold, especially if you have made changes to how your ventilation system is operating since last winter:

  • Turn off all non-critical exhaust systems (i.e. residential kitchen and toilet exhaust)
  • Temporarily reduce ventilation where possible
    • DO NOT turn off 100% Makeup Air Units (MAUs)
      • If 100% MAUs shut down unexpectedly and cannot be restored, we advise shut down of the toilet and kitchen exhaust systems
    • Override unoccupied and overnight setbacks
    • Avoid scheduled shutdowns of systems
    • Avoid turning heating related equipment off
    • Verify all coil pumps are operational
      • DO NOT shut coil pumps off
    • Maintain continuous operation of all heating related pumps
    • Minimize infiltration
      • Keep doors, windows and other openings sealed
    • Keep blinds and shades closed on windows at night and those not receiving direct sunlight during the day
    • Perform a system check of all heating critical equipment
    • Verify the operation of all low-limit safeties such as freezestats to protect equipment
      • Ensure the sequence of operation is followed upon a freezestat trip (Example: outside air dampers properly shut and can be reopened)
    • Verify the operation of all backup or redundant heating equipment not normally used
    • Verify the location of isolation valves, verify their operation and understand when to use them
      • During an emergency situation where a pipe, coil or other system has frozen, the reliability, and proper use of isolation valves is critical
      • Isolate the leak to as local an area as possible.
      • Take care not to close the wrong valve (essentially stopping the flow of water)
        • Water at rest is much more likely to freeze.  Therefore, do not risk further freezing of the system by closing the wrong valve, should isolation be required

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COVID-19: A New Driver for Improved IAQ/Ventilation in K-12 Schools

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, it is likely that this historic event will act as an ongoing catalyst for parents, teachers, and administrators of K-12 schools to advocate for better Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and improved HVAC systems to reduce the transmission of COVID and other viral aerosols within student learning environments.

Although longer-term HVAC system upgrades and retrofits may ultimately be necessary to address parent, faculty, and administrator IAQ concerns, the following opportunities exist now to improve ventilation and IAQ within K-12 schools:

  • Recommission existing HVAC equipment to correct operating deficiencies and to ensure systems are operating as designed.
  • Conduct or update master plans to prioritize future ventilation upgrades.
  • Incorporate ventilation upgrades into existing projects (e.g., add/upgrade filtration, increase outside air).
  • Upgrade or modify HVAC controls to increase ventilation, including frequent flushing.
  • Expedite replacement and upgrade of aged HVAC equipment.

Elara Expertise
Having been involved in K-12 schools since our firm’s inception in 2001, Elara’s dedicated K-12 design team has extensive knowledge and expertise to assist administrators and facility personnel to identify and pursue practical short-term and longer-term HVAC solutions to address COVID-19 IAQ and ventilation concerns.

Potential Federal Funding Available
To assist with the additional costs that K-12 schools incur to improve ventilation/IAQ, funding is available through the Federal government’s Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2021 (Expanded CARES Act).  Under this program, billions of dollars are available to public schools (based on size and need) for ventilation improvements to help support in-school learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. The federal government may expand the program in the coming months.

Resources
CDC
Ventilation in Buildings (under Community, Work, and Schools)

EPA
Creating Healthy Indoor Air Quality in Schools
Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

ASHRAE
Core Recommendations (PDF) for Reducing Airborne Infectious Aerosol Exposure

CHICAGO SUN TIMES
How Ventilation and Air Filtration Play Key Roles in Preventing COVID-19 Spread Indoors


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Proactive Planning for Summer and Fall 2021 MEP Projects

Although winter may just be knocking on the door in the midwest, believe it or not, now is the time to start planning for successful summer 2021 MEP construction projects. In many cases, projects involving a building’s heating system have a limited construction window when equipment is not required to operate, namely during summer months when outdoor air temperatures are above 65°F. Similarly, many buildings have changes in occupancy during summer months which may make summer an opportune time to implement construction projects that would otherwise be disruptive to building occupants and normal operation. Common examples of these type of buildings are K-12 schools and higher education facilities.

To accommodate a summer MEP construction project, ample upfront time is needed to properly plan for modification and/or replacement of a building’s heating systems.  When considering any MEP system, several alternatives often exist, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. A detailed review of applicable alternatives based on current conditions is needed to evaluate these alternatives for a specific property and application and could have significant impact on implementation, operating costs and lead times including equipment pre-purchase.

Building Owners should consider Elara to evaluate alternatives and prepare design documentation well in advance of the anticipated project construction and completion period. Several weeks, and in some cases months, are necessary to detail existing conditions, evaluate alternatives, perform calculations, pre-order equipment (if required) and prepare detailed engineering drawings that can be competitively bid to contractors.

If your building’s heating systems are aged, in poor condition or are requiring frequent repairs, consider planning now for modification or replacement in time for next year’s heating season.  Similarly, ventilation projects for Fall 2021 should also be planned in the coming months as equipment lead times are often several months from the time of order.

To proactively pursue a summer 2021 construction project, please contact us at 708-236-0300 or info@elaraeng.com within the next few months to ensure a timely and well planned construction project in 2021.

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Water Seepage Solutions for Buildings Impacted by Elevated Lake Levels

Rising Water; Increased Seepage
Lake Michigan is reaching near record high water levels in 2020 and is regularly featured on local news due to related challenges of rising water levels. The reality for buildings located near Lake Michigan is an elevated water table resulting in increased amounts of water infiltration, also known as seepage, into underground spaces that are situated at or below the water table. Water seepage can occur through foundation walls and slabs on grade via cracks or holes that have formed over time and, in particular, at cold concrete joints where two or more concrete pours meet each other. Increased water seepage can result in problematic additional moisture within buildings and pooling of water in building interiors.

Underground spaces located below the water table experience water pressure on the back side of the concrete slab. When the water table is elevated, increased water levels and associated pressure will result in increased seepage where seepage previously existed as well as introduce seepage in weakened areas where seepage was previously not occurring.

Seepage Solutions
To counteract the increased water seepage, a de-watering approach should be developed and implemented to minimize water infiltration and impact to the building. Common de-watering measures include the installation of a pumping system dedicated to removing water from the backside of the building foundations, drain tile to collect water to be pumped away from the building, vacuum pumps, injecting cracks and holes, sealing concrete slabs, etc. Pumping solutions typically include a back-up power source to ensure the system remains operational during a loss of power. A combination of these and other measures may be required to combat seepage depending on a specific building’s conditions. In many cases, an initial investigative trial may be necessary to gather data before implementing a permanent de-watering solution.

Elara Engineering has designed de-watering systems applicable to below-grade spaces in existing buildings, including historic buildings, experiencing water seepage. We recommend, as a first step, an initial study to develop a de-watering solution that is applicable to a specific building and site which may include input from a structural engineer and experienced contractors as well as the building owner. A thorough understanding of the building’s specific conditions and requirements in addition to a well thought out design is vital to ensure maximum effectiveness of the de-watering measure(s) implemented.

For more information, please contact us at 708-236-0300 or info@elaraeng.com.

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Proactive Strategies to Restore Domestic Water in Buildings

 

Considering the current COVID-19 pandemic, buildings of various types have found themselves completely or partially inactive for extended periods of time. Given this condition, building owners, operators and managers should take precautions when restoring building occupancy   as it relates to domestic water systems.

Responsible plumbing design and various plumbing codes dictate the avoidance of ‘dead-end’ piping in domestic water distribution systems to avoid stagnant water. Stagnant domestic water creates the potential for growth of pathogens and other potentially harmful conditions. Buildings that have been unoccupied for any significant period of time can create a condition in which portions of the domestic water piping distribution system may contain stagnant water.

Common measures that can be taken to assist in delivering fresh water to the points of use throughout a facility are provided below:

  • Check with your local public health department for reopening requirements that may apply to domestic water in your facility type.
  • Survey the domestic water piping system and equipment to identify any leaks that may have developed during the period of extended inactivity. This is of particular importance for facilities with vintage galvanized piping.
  • Independently flush the domestic cold water equipment and piping system. All domestic water equipment and points of use should be flushed thoroughly and may require a review of the domestic water piping distribution system in the facility. Flushing should progress from the water service entry point towards the last point of use to ensure that all piping is adequately flushed with fresh water. . All strainers in the system should be repeatedly cleaned during flushing.
  • Drain and clean water storage tanks along with other potentially sensitive equipment throughout the domestic water system such as decorative fountains. Follow manufacturer recommendations and utilize cleaning products appropriate for domestic water equipment. Adequately flush the water storage tanks and other equipment after cleaning with fresh water. Refer to manufacturer recommendations for additional measures for specific equipment or points of use.
  • Independently flush the domestic hot water equipment and piping system utilizing a similar approach to the cold water.
  • Check the functionality of all domestic water equipment and components (i.e. pumps, heaters, storage tanks, water treatment, etc.). Change all filters utilized in the domestic water system. Exercise valves throughout the system and pro-actively replace valves that do not seat fully closed.
  • Perform water quality testing for areas of concern to identify if contaminants have developed during the period of inactivity. The confirmation of contaminants in the domestic water systems may require cleaning of the domestic water piping and the consultation of an industrial hygienist, engineer and contractor.
  • Maintain domestic hot water storage tanks at safe temperatures without creating a potential scalding hazard for building occupants.
  • Refill p-traps in floor drains, open site drains, etc.
  • Document all measures taken to create a facility standard for future reference.
  • Refer to resources such as the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) “Maintaining or Restoring Water Quality in Buildings with Low or No Use” for more information.

Generally speaking, domestic water quality measures may not only be limited to significant periods of low or no usage. Normal facility operations can still include areas of stagnant water which should be managed as part of a regular maintenance plan. A water management plan for the facility should be created and updated on a regular basis.

Additional resources related to this topic include ASHRAE Standard 188, the CDC’s Water Management Plan Guidance, the American Industrial Hygiene Association Guideline, and the EPA’s WaterSense at Work.

For more information, please contact us at 708-236-0300 or info@elaraeng.com.

 

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Strategies to Reduce Viral Transmission in Buildings

In light of the current COVID-19 pandemic, building owners and managers have increased their interest in HVAC strategies and products aimed at reducing the airborne transmission of viruses. While current research is limited on the specific characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and its transmission, there is sufficient research on methods to help control  the transmission  of other infectious diseases.

For example, there are several strategies and products in the market today that are intended to reduce or remove pathogens from breathable air within buildings or systems. Many of these are supported by extensive research and practical experience while others employ new technologies with less substantiated data. Common strategies and products used today include:

  • Increasing ventilation (outdoor air) rates
  • Increasing air filtration effectiveness (MERV-13 or better)
  • Installing ultraviolet (UV-C) lights
    • In central air handling equipment
    • At upper room fixtures in the space
  • Implementing Bi-Polar ionization
  • Installing local exhaust and/or ventilation supply
  • Adding local filtration

These strategies can be implemented in new equipment/facilities or they can be retrofit in existing equipment/facilities.  Strategies may also be combined to amplify their effect or to address varying needs. The right solution for your facility will depend on many factors and there is currently no one-size-fits-all solution. A comprehensive plan should be developed that is suited for a building’s specific goals at individual space levels.

The implementation of HVAC strategies aimed at reducing the airborne transmission of viruses  within buildings should incorporate the following steps:

  1. Review Options: Working collaboratively with a professional engineer or industrial hygienist; identify, evaluate, and document potential virus mitigation strategies specific to the facility and its goals. These may include permanent or temporary measures which can be deployed now or in the future and may be part of a building re-opening plan under the current pandemic.
  2. Implement: Once options have been assembled and specific strategies selected, the professional engineer or industrial hygienist should prepare detailed specifications, assist in obtaining contractor pricing and review implementation by the successful contractor.
  3. Monitor and Adjust: It is important that after the implementation of any strategy, its resulting effectiveness and ongoing performance be monitored. This may include periodic testing of particulates or continuous monitoring through the building automation system and can vary widely based on the goals and strategies identified. Where actual performance is found to fall short of the desired thresholds, additional strategies can be implemented or controls adjusted to enhance performance. This monitoring and adjustment phase should be discussed and planned for as part of the initial options review.

Additional information regarding this topic is available through a recently released  position document prepared by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-conditioning Engineering (ASHRAE) which provides an overview of infectious disease transmission and previous ASHRAE research. The document can be found here.

For more information, please contact us at 708-236-0300 or info@elaraeng.com.

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Associate Principals Matt Swanson and Caitlin Levitsky Co-Author: “Planning for MEP Infrastructure Projects in High-Rise Buildings”

Elara Engineering Associate Principal Matt Swanson, LEED AP, CEM and Associate Principal Caitlin Levitsky, LEED AP BD+C recently co-authored the above titled article placed as a featured story in the Spring 2020 issue of Chicagoland Buildings & Environments.

The heart of any building is its major mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems that allow the building to successfully operate and provide comfort to its occupants. However, when one or more MEP systems require repair or replacement, significant cost and inconvenience to building owners and occupants can occur. Mr. Swanson’s and Ms. Levitsky’s article provides a practical, proactive approach to plan and implement a large-scale MEP repair or replacement project in a high-rise building to minimize costs and disruptions.

Because of the many alternatives that exist for MEP system replacements, the potential for significant disruption and inconvenience to building occupants, and the associated high capital cost incurred to undertake these projects in high-rise buildings, the article recommends a variety of key elements to ensure that a project delivers the intended result and best value.

A reprint of Mr. Swanson’s and Ms. Levitsky’s article can be found here.

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Evanston Energy Use Benchmarking Verification Due June 30th

Elara Engineering would like to remind our clients that the City of Evanston requires owners of commercial, residential and municipal buildings over 20,000 SF to track and verify (every third year by a professional) their building’s energy and water consumption using the Energy Star Portfolio Manager Tool. This includes apartment buildings, strip malls, schools, churches, hospitals, and  condominium buildings.  In addition, city-owned buildings, 10,000 SF or greater in size are required to comply.  It should be noted that condominium buildings 20,000 SF to 50,000 SF are exempt from the ordinance. The deadline to update and verify your building’s data is June 30, 2020. At this time, the deadline for compliance with the city has not been extended, however there is still time to complete benchmarking for this year.

More information about this city ordinance and required compliance actions can be found here. Additionally, Kelsey Dale from our Hillside office would be happy to answer any of your questions and assist in verification of your building’s data. She can be reached at 708.236.0300 x147 or kdale@elaraeng.com.

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City of Chicago Benchmarking Verification Due June 1st

Elara Engineering would like to remind our clients that the City of Chicago requires owners of commercial, residential and municipal buildings over 50,000 SF to track and verify (every third year by a professional) their building’s energy consumption using the Energy Star Portfolio Manager Tool. The deadline to update and verify your building’s data is June 1, 2020. At this time, the deadline for compliance with the city has not been extended, however there is still time to complete benchmarking for this year.

 

More information about this city ordinance and required compliance actions can be found here. Additionally, Kelsey Dale from our Hillside office would be happy to answer any of your questions and assist in verification of your building’s data. She can be reached at 708.236.0300 x147 or kdale@elaraeng.com.
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City of Chicago Implements Energy Rating System

In 2017, the City of Chicago created the Chicago Energy Rating System to improve the visibility and transparency of information required to be reported by building owners under the City’s 2013 Chicago Energy Benchmarking Ordinance.  As most of Elara’s clients already know, the Energy Benchmarking Ordinance requires large buildings located in Chicago (≥50,000 SF) to report energy use once per year, with additional data verification required every 3 years.

Under the new Chicago Energy Rating System, the first ratings were assigned between late August and mid-September 2019 for energy benchmarking reports that were due on June 1, 2019.  Now that the first ratings have been assigned, building owners will receive an initial six-month period within which they are required to post their Chicago Energy Rating Placard on site in a prominent location and begin sharing the rating at the time of listing for sale or lease.

How Chicago Energy Ratings are Assigned

Under the four-star rating system, four stars will indicate the highest energy performance while a one-star rating will indicate a poor energy performer.  Properties that have not submitted energy benchmarking information will receive zero stars.

Approximately 85% of buildings that report their data receive a 1-100 ENERGY STAR score from the Portfolio Manager energy benchmarking software.  These buildings will, based on their 1-100 ENERGY STAR score, receive between one and four stars on the four-star Chicago Energy Rating System.  Buildings with one, two, or three stars will be able to earn an additional star if they have improved by at least 10 points in the past two reporting years.

Approximately 15% of the reporting properties that are not eligible to receive a 1-100 ENERGY STAR score.  These properties will receive an energy rating based on the building’s source energy use intensity (EUI), which is energy use per square foot, in comparison to national medians for properties of similar size and type. The lower the percentile for Source EUI, the better, as a lower EUI indicates less energy use per square foot.  In these cases, the Chicago Energy Rating will be based on the following scale:

  • 1st to 25th percentile for Source EUI: 4 Stars
  • 25th to 50th percentile for Source EUI: 3 Stars
  • 50th to 75th percentile for Source EUI: 2 Stars
  • Above the 75th percentile for Source EUI: 1 Star
  • Any building with one, two, or three stars with a 10% improvement in the past 2 years earns an extra star

What Building Owners Need to Do

  • Ensure compliance with the reporting requirements under the City of Chicago Energy Benchmarking Ordinance.
  • Make sure you have received your Chicago Energy Rating Placard which were to be mailed by mid-September 2019.
  • Post your Chicago Energy Rating Placard and begin sharing – on an ongoing basis — your rating at the time of listing for sale or lease within the initial six-month grace period.

Additional information about the Chicago Energy Rating System can be found here.

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Elara’s Matt Swanson Publishes Article: “Proactive Energy Cost Reduction on the Rise in Chicago High-Rise Buildings”

Elara Engineering Associate Principal Matt Swanson, LEED AP, CEM has had the above titled article placed as the cover story in the Autumn 2019 issue of Chicagoland Buildings & Environments.

The article presents the proactive approach taken to lower energy costs at the existing 474 North Lake Shore Drive high-rise condominium building located in the Streeterville neighborhood of Chicago.  Elara’s forward-looking approach implemented over several years by the 474 North Lake Shore Drive Condominium Association resulted in a 23% reduction in relative energy costs since 2007; a savings of $127,930 annually.

Beginning with Elara’s 2008 energy audit, the building’s Condominium Association maintained a constant focus on the energy performance of their building and continuously implemented energy conservation recommendations identified in the 2008 audit report, and subsequent reports in 2011 and 2015.

Consistent with Elara’s recommended strategy, projects that addressed “low hanging fruit” such as controls and VFDs that have a short-term payback and reduce the overall load of the building systems, were implemented first.  This strategy paid dividends during a 2016 chiller plant replacement.  Reduced demand of end-user systems (e.g., AHUs, exhaust fans, etc.) from previously recommended energy efficiency projects allowed for the installation of new chillers that were smaller in capacity; resulting in both lower initial and operating costs.  The associated savings allowed the Condominium Association to fund other energy efficiency upgrades.

In total, all of Elara’s recommendations that were implemented represented an incremental cost of $900,000 with a payback of less than 10 years.  Additionally, $58,275 was obtained through utility incentive programs to assist in funding the projects as a result of the energy efficiency improvements implemented.

A reprint of Mr. Swanson’s article can be found here and more detailed information about Elara’s 474 North Lake Shore Drive Project can be found here.

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Illinois’ New Retainage Law Now in Effect for Construction Contracts

Facility Managers, Building Owners and Contractors take note that on August 20, 2019, Illinois Governor Jay Pritzker signed into law SB 1636, the Contractor Prompt Payment Act.

The Act, which became effective the day it was signed has the following requirements:

  • A retainage of 10% of the payment may be withheld from a payment under a construction contract prior to the completion of 50% of the contract.
  • When a construction contract is 50% complete, retainage withheld must be reduced so that no more than 5% is held.
  • It further provides that after 50% of the construction contract is completed, the amount of retainage for any subsequent payments may not exceed 5%.

These differ from previous requirements and generally accepted contractual standards for construction projects in Illinois which upheld a retainage value of 10% throughout the project construction until substantial completion.

All future contracts and subsequent pay applications and approvals associated with construction projects within Illinois limits must ensure these provisions are upheld.

The full Act can be found here.

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Navigating Chicago’s New Construction Codes

Elara Engineering is pleased to initiate an ongoing series to inform building developers, owners and managers of the changes, deadlines, and potentially significant impacts from the City of Chicago’s new construction codes.  In this first installment, we provide background information on the new construction codes, identify important dates and highlight recent and upcoming code changes.

Background and Goals

According to a May 2019 presentation from the City of Chicago Department of Buildings, the goal of the new construction codes is “to better align the City of Chicago’s construction requirements with up-to-date model codes and standards used in other major US jurisdictions while maintaining longstanding local requirements that are adapted to unique conditions in Chicago.”

Chicago’s 2015-2021 Code Modernization Process – as the effort is called – has been broken down into three phases:

  • Phase I, which includes changes to the Conveyance Device Code and Electrical Code, has been completed.
  • Phase II, which includes changes to Administrative Provisions, Building Code, Energy Conservation Code, and Rehabilitation Code, is to be completed between 2017 and 2020.
  • Phase III, which includes changes to Fire Prevention Code, Fuel Gas Code, Mechanical Code, Plumbing Code, and (specific) Energy Conservation Code enhancements, is to completed between 2019 and 2021.

Electrical Code (Effective 3/1/2019)

Chicago’s new Electrical Code, which became effective on March 1st of this year, includes the following highlights:

  • 20 new code articles taken from the National Electric Code (NEC) including six that deal directly with renewable energy
  • Upgraded articles dealing with solar-photo voltaic construction to reflect the new technologies
  • Lighting load calculation and service disconnect location exceptions
  • New requirements for switched lighting

Energy Conservation Code (Effective 6/1/2019)

The revised Illinois Energy Conservation Code, which adopts the 2018 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) with amendments, is effective on June 1, 2019. The law does not apply to buildings designated “historic” or having “landmark status” (interior and exterior separately), buildings exempt from a local building code, and buildings that do not use either electricity or fossil fuel for comfort conditioning. The new Illinois Energy Conservation Code includes the following highlights:

  • IECC now addresses both commercial and residential buildings
  • Additional compliance paths have been identified including ASHRAE and performance based
  • Code officials are required to approve energy compliance in lieu of testing requirements outlined in the previous IECC
  • Lighting and lighting control including daylighting requirements have been updated and clarified
  • Mechanical equipment efficiency ratings, minimum airflows and required controls have been updated and clarified

Building Code (Effective 8/1/2020)

A new Building Code will be issued by the International Code Council (ICC) in October of 2019 and will ultimately be adopted by the City of Chicago for mandatory use as of August 1, 2020. A transitional period for implementation of the new building code has been outlined by the City of Chicago as follows:

  • Test projects utilizing the new ICC Building Code will be accepted by invitation only for permit applications within the City of Chicago during the Fall of 2019.
  • Permit applications within the City of Chicago will have the option to submit according to the new ICC Building Code beginning December 1, 2019.
  • Minimum standards for compliance with the new ICC Building Codes will be enacted and enforced by the City of Chicago during the Spring of 2020.
  • The new ICC building Codes will be mandatory for all permit applications within the City of Chicago as of August 1, 2020.
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R-22 2020 Phase-Out Deadline Fast Approaching

Background
The Montreal Protocol is a global agreement with the goal of phasing out the use and production of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS), which include hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). To meet the goals established by the Montreal Protocol, HCFCs must be phased out by January 1, 2020; and will therefore, no longer be produced or imported into the U.S. after that date.

Although other HCFCs can be sometimes be found in currently used refrigeration equipment, the most common HCFC by far is HCFC-22 or R-22.  This refrigerant is used in existing air conditioners and refrigeration equipment including unitary air conditioners, cold storage, retail food refrigeration equipment, chillers, and industrial process refrigeration.

Many recall the first step of the HCFC phase out, which occurred on January 1, 2010 and resulted in the production of R-22 to be significantly reduced. Since the initial phase out, the cost of R-22, and therefore the cost of maintaining equipment using R-22, has become increasingly expensive. After the upcoming phase out, only reclaimed or stockpiled R-22 can be used for maintenance of R-22 refrigeration equipment. It is expected that the cost of R-22 will significantly increase with the latest phase due to limited and dwindling supplies.

Options for Building Owners and Managers
With potentially many pieces of air conditioning equipment under their care and responsibility, the upcoming R-22 phase-out deadline means that building owners and managers need to establish a viable, common-sense course of action to pursue.  Several options are available.

  • DO NOTHING NOW AND WAIT. If a unit breaks after January 2020, the repair may be cost prohibitive due to the cost of R-22. If it happens in 2019, a decision will have to be made to replace it or to invest in a repair.
  • RETROFIT OLDER SYSTEMS TO USE A NEW REFRIGERANT. In some cases, equipment owners can invest in a retrofit that allows existing equipment to use certain newer refrigerants. Because this option will not be possible for all systems, an analysis will be needed to determine its technical and financial viability.
  • REPLACE PROACTIVELY. Although the upfront cost/investment can be a hurdle, especially if multiple systems need to be replaced prior to the R-22 phase-out deadline; proactive replacement could be the most cost-effective alternative in the long run. Equipment owners can take advantage of current tax breaks and utility-sponsored incentive programs to potentially reduce HVAC equipment and installation costs.

Options Guidance and Cost Reduction Opportunities 

With expertise in energy audits and studies, master planning, engineering design, equipment identification and selection; Elara Engineering is well-positioned to identify, evaluate, and pursue a technically and financially sound R-22 phase-out option.  In addition, having procured a cumulative total of over $5MM in incentives from ComEd, Peoples Gas, and Nicor to help offset costs associated with the installation of energy efficient improvements, Elara can assist clients, when combined with applicable tax breaks, minimize R-22 phase-out costs as much as possible.